Erler Lab Publications

Peer-Reviewed Papers


Modeling Metastatic Colonization in a Decellularized Organ Scaffold‐Based Perfusion Bioreactor

adhm202270001-gra-0001-mMaria Rafaeva, Edward R. Horton, Adina R.D. Jensen, Chris D. Madsen, Raphael Reuten, Oliver Willacy, Christian B. Brøchner, Thomas H. Jensen, Kamilla Westarp Zornhagen, Marina Crespo, Dina S. Grønseth, Sebastian R. Nielsen, Manja Idorn, Per thor Straten, Kristoffer Rohrberg, Iben Spanggaard, Martin Højgaard,U lrik Lassen, Janine T. Erler, and Alejandro E. Mayorca-Guiliani

Advanced Healthcare Materials11(1), p.2270001.



Organ-Specific, Fibroblast-Derived Matrix as a Tool for Studying Breast Cancer Metastasis

Adina R. D. Jensen , Edward R. Horton , Lene H. Blicher , Elin J. Pietras , Cornelia Steinhauer , Raphael Reuten , Erwin M. Schoof and Janine T. Erler 

Cancers 2021, 13(13), 3331;


Suppression of tumor-associated neutrophils by lorlatinib attenuates pancreatic cancer growth and improves treatment with immune checkpoint blockade

Sebastian R. Nielsen , Jan E. Strøbech, Edward R. Horton, Rene Jackstadt, Anu Laitala, Marina C. Bravo, Giorgia Maltese, Adina R. D. Jensen, Raphael Reuten, Maria Rafaeva, Saadia A. Karim, Chang-Il Hwang, Luis Arnes, David A. Tuveson, Owen J. Sansom, Jennifer P. Morton & Janine T. Erler

Nat Commun 12, 3414 (2021).


Netrin-4 regulates stifness and metastasis (News & Views)

Patrick Mehlen & Laurent Fattet

Nat. Mater. 20, 722–723 (2021).


Decellularization of the Murine Cardiopulmonary Complex

Alejandro E. Mayorca-Guiliani, Maria Rafaeva, Oliver Willacy, Chris D. Madsen, Raphael Reuten, Janine T. Erler

J. Vis. Exp. (171), e61854, doi:10.3791/61854 


Deciphering the temporal heterogeneity of cancer-associated fibroblast subpopulations in breast cancer

Freja Albjerg Venning, Kamilla Westarp Zornhagen, Lena Wullkopf, Jonas Sjölund, Carmen Rodriguez-Cupello, Pontus Kjellman, Mikkel Morsing, Morteza Chalabi Hajkarim, Kyoung Jae Won, Janine Terra Erler & Chris Denis Madsen

Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research


Basement membrane stiffness determines metastases formation

Raphael Reuten, Sina Zendehroud, Monica Nicolau, Lutz Fleischhauer, Anu Laitala, Stefanie Kiderlen, Denise Nikodemus, Lena Wullkopf, Sebastian Rune Nielsen, Sarah McNeilly, Carina Prein, Maria Rafaeva, Erwin M. Schoof, Benjamin Furtwängler, Bo T. Porse, Hyobin Kim, Kyoung Jae Won, Stefanie Sudhop, Kamilla Westarp Zornhagen, Frank Suhr, Eleni Maniati, Oliver M. T. Pearce, Manuel Koch, Lene Broeng Oddershede, Tom Van Agtmael, Chris D. Madsen, Alejandro E. Mayorca-Guiliani, Wilhelm Bloch, Roland R. Netz, Hauke Clausen-Schaumann & Janine T. Erler

Nature Materials 


Framing cancer progression: influence of the organ- and tissue-specific matrisome
Rafaeva M, Erler JT


Decellularization and antibody staining of mouse tissues to map native extracellular matrix structures in 3D
Mayorca-Guiliani AE, Willacy O, Madsen CD, Rafaeva M, Heumüller SE, Bock F, Sengle G, Koch M, Imhof T, Zaucke F, Wagener R, Sasaki T, Erler JT, Reuten R
Nature Protocols

Mesenchymal stromal cell activation by breast cancer secretomes in bioengineered 3D microenvironments
Blache U, Horton ER, Xia T, Schoof EM, Blicher LH, Schönenberger A, Snedeker JG, Martin I, Erler JT, Ehrbar M

Life Science Alliance

Interplay between LOX enzymes and integrins in the tumor microenvironment
Amendola PG, Reuten R, Erler JT
Cancers (Basel) 11(5):E729


Cancer cell ability to mechanically adjust to extracellular matrix stiffness correlates with their invasive potential
Wullkopf L, West AV, Leijnse N, Cox TR, Madsen CD, Oddershede LB, Erler JT
Molecular Biology of the Cell

Tumor endothelial marker 8 promotes cancer progression and metastasis
Høye AM, Tolstrup SD, Horton ER, Nicolau M, Frost H, Woo JH, Mauldin JP, Frankel AE, Cox TR, Erler JT
Oncotarget 9(53):30173-30188

Notch‐inducing hydrogels reveal a perivascular switch of mesenchymal stem cell fate
Blache U, Vallmajo‐Martin Q, Horton ER, Guerrero J, Djonov V, Scherberich A, Erler JT, Martin I, Snedeker JG, Milleret V, Ehrbar M
EMBO Reports 19(8):e45964 doi:

Friction-limited cell motility in confluent monolayer tissue
Christensen A, West AV, Wullkopf L, Erler JT, Oddershede LB, Mathiesen J
Phys Biol pubmed:29939152

Hypoxic signalling in tumour stroma
Laitala A, Erler JT
Frontiers in Oncology 8:189 pubmed:29896451

Proteomic characterisation of caenorhabditis elegans larval development
Xia T, Horton ER, Salcini AE, Pocock R, Cox TR, Erler JT
Proteomics 18(2) pubmed:29178193


Perspective on the interpretation of research and translation to clinical care with therapy-associated metastatic breast cancer as an example
Fingleton B, Lange K, Caldwell B, Bankaitis KV; Board of the Metastasis Research Society
Clinical & Experimental Metastasis 34(8):443-447 pubmed:29484519

Established models and new paradigms for hypoxia-driven cancer-associated bone disease
Cox TR, Erler JT, Rumney RMH
Calcif Tissue Int pubmed:29098360

Dynamic rearrangement of cell states detected by systematic screening of sequential anticancer treatments
Koplev S, Longden J, Ferkinghoff-Borg J, Blicher Bjerregård M, Cox TR, Erler JT, Pedersen JT, Voellmy F, Sommer MOA, Linding R
Cell Rep 20(12):2784-2791 pubmed:28930675

ISDoT: in situ decellularization of tissues for high-resolution imaging and proteomic analysis of native extracellular matrix
Mayorca-Guiliani AE, Madsen CD, Cox TR, Horton ER, Venning FA, Erler JT
Nat Med 23(7):890-898 pubmed:28604702

Pre-metastatic niches: organ-specific homes for metastases
Peinado H, Zhang H, Matei IR, Costa-Silva B, Hoshino A, Rodrigues G, Psaila B, Kaplan RN, Bromberg JF, Kang Y, Bissell MJ, Cox TR, Giaccia AJ, Erler JT, Hiratsuka S, Ghajar CM, Lyden D
Nat Rev Cancer 17(5):302-317 pubmed:28303905

Correlation of ultrasound shear wave elastography with pathological analysis in a xenografic tumour model
Elyas E, Papaevangelou E, Alles EJ, Erler JT, Cox TR, Robinson SP, Bamber JC
Sci Rep 7(1):165 pubmed:28279018

Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness
West AV, Wullkopf L, Christensen A, Leijnse N, Tarp JM, Mathiesen J, Erler JT, Oddershede LB
Sci Rep 7:43800 pubmed:28262796

Pre-clinical evaluation of small molecule LOXL2 inhibitors in breast cancer
Chang J, Lucas MC, Leonte LE, Garcia-Montolio M, Singh LB, Findlay AD, Deodhar M, Foot JS, Jarolimek W, Timpson P, Erler JT, Cox TR
Oncotarget 8(16):26066-26078 pubmed:28199967

Multi-channel optical coherence elastography using relative and absolute shear-wave time of flight
Elyas E, Grimwood A, Erler JT, Robinson SP, Cox TR, Woods D, Clowes P, De Luca R, Marinozzi F, Fromageau J, Bamber JC
PLoS One 12(1):e0169664 pubmed:28107368


The role of lysyl oxidase, the extracellular matrix and the pre-metastatic niche in bone metastasis
Gartland A, Erler JT, Cox TR
J Bone Oncol 5(3):100-103 pubmed:27761366

Fibrosis and cancer: partners in crime or opposing forces?
Cox TR. Erler JT
Trends In Cancer cell:S2405-8033

Structural ECM components in the premetastatic and metastatic niche
Høye AM, Erler JT
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 310(11) pubmed:27053524

Comparison of 18F-FET and 18F-FLT small animal PET for the assessment of anti-VEGF treatment response in an orthotopic model of glioblastoma
Nedergaard MK, Michaelsen SR, Perryman L, Erler JT, Poulsen HS, Stockhausen M-T, Lassen U, Kjaer A
Nucl Med Biol 43(3) 198-205 pubmed:26924500

Nuclear expression of lysyl oxidase enzyme is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancer patients
Liu N, Cox TR, Cui W, Adell G, Holmlund B, Ping J, Jarlsfelt I, Erler JT, Sun XF
Oncotarget pubmed:27231855

Lysyl oxidase, a targetable secreted molecule involved in cancer metastasis
Cox TR, Gartland A, Erler JT
Cancer Research 76(2):188-92 pubmed:26732355

Matrix cross-linking lysyl oxidases are induced in response to myocardial infarction and promote cardiac dysfunction
González-Santamaría J, Villalba M, Busnadiego O, López-Olañeta MM, Sandoval P, Snabel J, López-Cabrera M, Erler JT, Hanemaaijer R, Lara-Pezzi E, Rodríguez-Pascual F
Cardiovasc Res 109(1):67-78 pubmed:26260798


VEGF-C contributes to autocrine VEGFR2 signaling and affects cell viability and tumour growth in glioblastoma
Michaelsen SR, Nedergaard MK, Urup T, Villingshoej M, Kjaer A, Perryman L, Erler JT, Lassen U, Poulsen HS
Neuro-Oncology 17:v41-v44 neuro.doi:10.1093

Dataset for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of the breast cancer hypoxic secretome associated with osteotropism
Cox TR, Schoof EM, Gartland A, Erler JT, Linding R
Data Brief 5:621-625 pubmed:26649326

Targeting ECM disrupts cancer progression
Venning FA, Wullkopf L, Erler JT
Front Oncol 5:224 pubmed:26539408

Pten regulates epithelial cytodifferentiation during prostate development
Lokody IB, Francis JC, Gardiner JR, Erler JT, Swain A
PLoS One 10(6):e0129470 pubmed:26076167

Targeting the LOX/hypoxia axis reverses many of the features that make pancreatic cancer deadly: inhibition of LOX abrogates metastasis and enhances drug efficacy
Miller BW, Morton JP, Pinese M, Saturno G, Jamieson NB, McGhee E, Timpson P, Leach J, McGarry L, Shanks E, Bailey P, Chang D, Oien K, Karim S, Au A, Steele C, Carter CR, McKay C, Anderson K, Evans TR, Marais R, Springer C, Biankin A, Erler JT, Sansom OJ
EMBO Mol Med 7(8):1063-76 pubmed:26077591

Kinome-wide decoding of network attacking mutations rewiring cancer
Creixell P, Schoof EM, Simpson CD, Longden J, Miller CJ, Lou HJ, Perryman L, Cox TR, Zivanovic N, Palmeri A, Wesolowska-Andersen A, Helmer-Citterich M, Ferkinghoff-Borg J, Itamochi H, Bodenmiller B, Erler JT, Turk BE, Linding R
Cell 163(1):202-217 pubmed:26388441

Interdisciplinary research: bold alliances aid translational work
Erler JT
Nature 517(7535):438. pubmed:25612042

Hypoxia and loss of PHD2 inactivate stromal fibroblasts to decrease tumour stiffness and metastasis
Madsen CD, Pedersen JT, Venning FA, Singh LB, Moeendarbary E, Charras G, Cox TR, Sahai E, Erler JT
EMBO Rep 16(10):1394-1408 pubmed:26323721

Stimulating translational research: several European life science institutions put their heads together
Bentires-Alj M, Rajan A, van Harten W, van Luenen HG, Kubicek S, Andersen JB, Saarela J, Cook SJ, Van Minnebruggen G, Roman-Roman S, Maurer C, Erler JT, Bertero MG
Trends Mol Med 21(9):525-527 pubmed:26254816

STRIPAK components determine mode of cancer cell migration and metastasis
Madsen CD, Hooper S, Tozluoglu M, Bruckbauer A, Fletcher G, Erler JT, Bates PA, Thompson B, Sahai E
Nat Cell Biol 17(1):68-80 pubmed:25531779

The hypoxic cancer secretome induces pre-metastatic bone lesions through lysyl oxidase
Cox TR, Rumney RMH, Schoof EM, Perryman L, Høye AM, Agrawal A, Bird, D, Ab Latif N, Forrest H, Evans HR, Huggins ID, Lang G, Linding R, Gartland A, Erler JT
Nature 522(7554):106–110 pubmed:26017313

AGE‐modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival
Rodriguez‐Teja M, Gronau JH, Breit C,  Zhang Y, Minamidate A, Caley MP, McCarthy A, Cox TR, Erler JT, Gaughan L, Darby S, Robson C, Mauri F, Waxman J, Sturge J
J Pathol 235(4):581-592 pubmed:25408555


Fibrosis, cancer and the premetastatic niche
Cox TR, Erler JT
Breast Cancer Management 3(6):453-455 futuremedicine/10.2217

Lysyl oxidase in cancer research
Perryman L, Erler JT
Future Oncol 10(9):1709-1717 pubmed:25145437

Molecular pathways: connecting fibrosis and solid tumor metastasis
Cox TR, Erler JT
Clin Cancer Res 20(14):3637-3643 pubmed:25028505

Brain cancer spreads
Perryman L, Erler JT
Sci Transl Med 6(247):247fs28 pubmed:25080473

Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer
Cox TR, Erler JT
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 305(10):G659-G666 pubmed:24008360

Ionizing radiation induces tumor cell lysyl oxidase secretion
Shen CJ, Sharma A, Vuong DV, Erler JT, Pruschy M, Broggini-Tenzer A
BMC Cancer 14:532 pubmed:25052686

Identification of hypoxia-regulated proteins using MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging combined with quantitative proteomics
Djidja MC, Chang J, Hadjiprocopis A, Schmich F, Sinclair J, Mršnik M, Schoof EM, Barker HE, Linding R, Jørgensen C, Erler JT
J Proteome Res 13(5):2297-313 pubmed:24702160

Cancer: Disabling defences in the brain
Erler JT
Nature 508(7494):46-47 pubmed:24695307


LOXL2 induces aberrant acinar morphogenesis via ErbB2 signaling
Chang J, Nicolau MM, Cox TR, Wetterskog D, Martens JW, Barker HE, Erler JT
Breast Cancer Research 15(4):R67 pubmed:23971878

The potential for targeting extracellular LOX proteins in human malignancy
Mayorca-Guiliani A, Erler JT
Onco Targets Ther 6:1729-1735 pubmed:24348049

The importance of LOX family members on modulating cell-ECM interactions in carcinogenesis
Cox TR and Erler JT
J Carcinogene Mutagene S13:001 omicsonline/2157-2518.S13

LOX-mediated collagen crosslinking is responsible for fibrosis-enhanced metastasis
Cox TR, Bird D, Baker AM, Barker HE, Ho MW, Lang G, Erler JT
Cancer Research 73(6):1721-1732 pubmed:23345161

Tumor-secreted LOXL2 activates fibroblasts through FAK signaling
Barker HE, Bird D, Lang G, Erler JT
Mol Cancer Res 11(11):1425-1436 pubmed:24008674

Lysyl oxidase plays a critical role in endothelial cell stimulation to drive tumor angiogenesis
Baker AM, Bird D, Welti J, Gourlaouen M, Lang G, Murray G, Reynolds AR, Cox TR, Erler  JT
Cancer Research 73(2):583-594 pubmed:23188504


Network biology and the 3-Dimensional tumor micro-environment: personalizing medicine for the future
Cox TR, Erler JT
Tumor Microenvironment and Therapy (1):14-18 degruyter/2012-0002

The rationale for targeting the LOX family in cancer
Barker HE, Cox TR and Erler JT
Nature Reviews Cancer 12(8):540-552 pubmed:22810810

Navigating cancer network attractors for tumor-specific therapy
Creixell P, Schoof EM, Erler JT, Linding R
Nat Biotechnol 30(9):842-848 pubmed:22965061

The pre-metastatic niche: is metastasis random?
Cox TR, Gartland A, Erler JT
Bonekey Rep 1:80 pubmed:27127624

Contrasting effects of sunitinib within in vivo models of metastasis
Welti JC, Powles T, Foo S, Gourlaouen M, Preece N, Foster J, Frentzas S, Bird D, Sharpe K, van Weverwijk A, Robertson D, Soffe J, Erler JT, Pili R, Springer CJ, Mather SJ, Reynolds AR
Angiogenesis 15(4):623-641 pubmed:22843200

Network medicine strikes a blow against breast cancer
Erler JT, Linding R
Cell 149(4):731-733 pubmed:22579276

Lysyl oxidase enzymatic function increases stiffness to drive colorectal cancer progression through FAK
Baker AM, Lang G, Bird D, Cox TR, Erler JT
Oncogene 32(14):1863-1868 nature/2012202a


Remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix: implications for fibrotic diseases and cancer
Cox TR, Erler JT
Dis Model Mec 4(2):165-178 pubmed:21324931

The role of lysyl xxidase in SRC-dependent proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer
Baker A-M, Cox TR, Bird D, Lang G, Murray G, Sun X-F, Southall S, Wilson J, Erler JT
J Natl Cancer Inst 103(5):407-424 pubmed:21282564

The potential for LOXL2 as a target for future cancer treatment
Barker HE, Erler JT
Future Oncol 7(6):707-710 pubmed:21675833

LOXL2-mediated matrix remodeling in metastasis and mammary gland involution
Barker HE, Chang J, Cox TR, Lang G, Bird D, Nicolau M, Evans HR, Gartland A, Erler JT
Cancer Res 71(5):1561-1572 pubmed:21233336


Network based drugs and biomarkers
Erler JT, Linding R
J Pathol 220(2):290-296 pubmed:19921715

Hypoxia in Models of Lung Cancer: Implications for Targeted Therapeutics
Graves EE, Vilalta M, Cecic I, Erler JT, Tran PT, Felsher D, Sayles L, Sweet-Cordero A, Le Q-T, Giaccia AJ
Clin Cancer Res 16(19):4843-4852 pubmed:20858837

Tissue section AFM: In situ ultrastructural imaging of native biomolecules
Graham HK, Hodson NW, Hoyland JA, Millward-Sadler SJ, Garrod D, Scothern A, Griffiths CE, Watson RE, Cox TR, Erler JT, Trafford AW, Sherratt MJ
Matrix Biol 29(4):254-260 pubmed:20144712


Hypoxia-induced lysyl oxidase is a critical mediator of bone marrow cell recruitment to form the pre-metastatic niche
Erler JT, Bennewith KL, Cox TR, Lang G, Bird D, Le Q-T, Koong A, Giaccia AJ
Cancer Cell 15(1):35-44 pubmed:19111879

Bioreductively activated lysyl oxidase inhibitors against hypoxic tumours
Granchi C, Funaioli T, Erler JT, Giaccia AJ, Macchia M, Minutolo F
ChemMedChem 4(10):1590-1594 pubmed:19685543

Matrix crosslinking forces tumor progression by enhancing integrin signaling
Levental KR, Yu H, Kass L, Lakins JN, Egeblad M, Erler JT, Fong SF, Csiszar K, Giaccia A, Weninger W, Yamauchi M, Gasser DL, Weaver VM
Cell 139(5):891-906 pubmed:19931152

The role of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) in pancreatic tumor growth
Bennewith KL, Huang X, Ham C, Graves E, Erler JT, Kambham N, Giaccia AJ
Cancer Res 69(3):775-784 pubmed:19179545

Validation of lysyl oxidase as a prognostic marker for metastasis and survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 90-03
Le QT, Harris J, Magliocco AM, Kong CS, Diaz R, Shin B, Cao H, Trotti A, Erler JT, Chung CH, Dicker A, Pajak TF, Giaccia AJ, Ang KK
J Clin Oncol 27(26):4281-4286 pubmed:19667273

The role of tumor cell-derived connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in pancreatic tumor growth
Bennewith KL, Huang X, Ham CM, Graves EE, Erler JT, Kambham N, Feazell J, Yang GP, Koong A, Giaccia AJ
Cancer Res 69(3):775-784 pubmed:19179545

Three-dimensional context regulation of metastasis
Erler JT, Weaver VM
Clin Exp Metastasis 26(1):35-49 pubmed:18814043

Invited Book Chapters

Biomarkers of the tumor microenvironment: Basic studies and practical applications
El Rayes T, Gao D, Altorki N, Cox TR, Erler JT, Mittal V
(2016) Springer publications ISBN:978-3-319-39145-8

Quantification of lung metastases from in vivo mouse models. Tumour microenvironment and cellular stress
Chang J, Erler JT
(2015) Springer Publications ISBN:978-3-319-26664-0

Remodeling of the extracellular matrix, cell and molecular biology of breast cancer
Cox TR, Erler JT
(2013) Humana Press ISBN:978-1-62703-633-7

Hypoxia regulated metastasis, tumour microenvironment and cellular stress
Chang J, Erler JT
(2013) Springer Publications ISBN:978-1-4614-5914-9

Critical steps in cancer metastasis: Chapter 3 of Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology
Rankin EB, Erler JT, Giaccia AJ
(2013) Elsevier Publications

Pre-metastatic niches: Chapter 8 of Tumour Micro-environment
Bennewith KL, Erler JT, Giaccia AJ
(2010) John Wiley Publications ISBN:978-0-4707-4996-8

Critical steps in cancer metastasis: Chapter 3 of Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology
Erler JT, Giaccia AJ
(2008) Elsevier Publications